The technical process of soilless cultivation of tomatoes in smart glass greenhouses
Modern science and technology have achieved unprecedented innovation and development. Modern planting technology has developed from conventional soil cultivation to soilless cultivation, which not only fundamentally prevents soil from being damaged by successive farming, but also effectively saves water and fertilizers and contributes to the sustainable development of resources. Has an extremely important role in promoting. Today I will share with you some technical processes for soilless tomato cultivation in a glass multi-span greenhouse.
As far as the glass greenhouse tomato soilless cultivation infrastructure is concerned, it mainly includes the following three aspects.
First, cultivation tank, or standard cultivation tank, substrate bag
Generally, the soilless cultivation tanks for tomato in glass greenhouses should be built in a north-south direction, and they must be stacked in parallel. In the actual construction process, the inner width of the cultivation tank is 48cm and the height is 24cm, and the distance between each cultivation tank is 72cm. At the same time, in order to effectively prevent the infiltration of the cultivation tank and ensure the scientific isolation of the substrate and the soil, a layer of 0.1mm thick plastic film can be laid on the bottom of the cultivation tank, and the uppermost plastic film can be pressed with bricks, and a 3cm thick film can be laid on the top of the film. Clean the river sand. Lay an l-layer woven bag on the upper part of the river sand and the cultivation substrate on the upper part of the bag. If the substrate bag is used, the length can be designed according to the actual cultivation space, but the height must be 20cm and the width 40cm.
Second, the cultivation substrate
Generally speaking, vermiculite, sawdust, rock wool or mixed substrates can be used as substrates. If substrate bag cultivation is used, a lighter substrate should be used. Can use pure perlite, or perlite mixed with 1/3 to 1/2 of peat. If a mixed matrix is used, the raw materials are piled up to a thickness of 25 cm 15 days before mixing and production, and then sprayed with a wet film to disinfect the bacteria. Pay attention to the process, add 2kg of organic ecological soilless culture special fertilizer and 10kg of disinfected chicken manure per 1m3 of substrate; at the same time, the substrate can be disinfected after the crops are harvested. In order to further ensure the efficiency of the substrate, It can be updated once every 3 to 5 years. If the nutrient solution is used for irrigation, the base fertilizer may not be applied.
Third, irrigation equipment
Using tap water equipment or well water, it is also possible to build a reservoir with a water level difference of 1.5m, and collect rainwater from the greenhouse or greenhouse as a water source. A single glass greenhouse can be built with independent irrigation equipment. Plastic pipes can be used for the main pipes in the shed and the drip irrigation belt inside the cultivation trough. Actually lay 1 to 2 pipes and install a 0.1mm thick plastic film to effectively prevent the drip irrigation water from leaking.
Fourth, the selection of cultivars
In the selection process of tomato soilless cultivation in glass greenhouses, the characteristics of modern greenhouses and the growth characteristics of crops. When selecting varieties, it is mainly necessary to consider the market characteristics and quality, the growth potential of the variety and the ability to sustain fruit, the disease resistance and stress resistance of the variety It is a tomato variety that has the characteristics of vigorous growth, strong fruiting ability, resistance to low temperature and weak light, resistance to many diseases, good quality, long shelf life, and resistance to transportation. For the selection of tomato seedlings, you can either breed them yourself or buy them from professional seedling farms.
Fifth, colonization and cultivation management
(1) In terms of temperature, humidity and light, the daytime temperature should be controlled at 22～25℃, and the night temperature at 10～15℃; for fruit setting, the daytime temperature should be controlled at 25～28℃, and the night temperature should be controlled at 20℃. In addition, tomatoes prefer light, so you must ensure that the plants see more light in the later stage of planting; the overall humidity should be controlled at 60% of the air humidity.
(2) Fertilization and irrigation management. During the first 3 to 5 days of planting, irrigate once on a sunny day; after the fruit is set, irrigate once every morning and afternoon, and the irrigation time should be controlled within 15-20 minutes. Fertilization should be carried out 20 days after planting, once every 10d, 15g each time; after the fruit is set, once every 7d, 25g each time. During this process, avoid putting fertilizer on the roots of the plants, and must be mixed into the substrate to ensure the healthy growth of the plants. (3) Hanging vines and cutting branches, when the plant grows to 6 to 7 leaves, use plastic rope to hang the vines to effectively ensure the vertical growth of the plant; for pruning, select single-stem pruning, and remove all lateral branches in the leaf axils.
(4) To preserve flowers, fruits and comb fruits, use 10%-15% 2,4-D solution to dip the flowers every day from 7:00 to 9:00 to effectively increase the fruit setting rate and retain 3 to 4 fruits , Timely remove malformed fruit, diseased fruit, rotten fruit to ensure the quality of tomato fruit.
(5) For pest control, install anti-insect nets on skylights to prevent lepidopteran insects from entering. Cover with mulch to prevent soil pests from spreading to the plants. Hang swatches in the cultivation area to trap whiteflies and leaf miners. Biological pesticides are preferred for chemical control. Umbilical rot is mostly in the initial flowering stage, spray 0.1% calcium chloride on the surface of the leaves, control once every 15 days, and continuously control 2 to 3 times; for leaf mold, choose 70% thiophanate methyl and control once every 7 days , Continuous control 2 to 3 times; 75% chlorothalonil wettable powder is mostly selected for early blight, once every 7 days, continuous control 2 to 3 times; aphids and whitefly use 10% 11 beacloprid wettable. Powder for prevention and control.
To sum up, in the process of tomato soilless cultivation in modern glass greenhouses, it is necessary to prepare the infrastructure for tomato soilless cultivation in glass greenhouses, and to do a good job in the cultivation management of plug soilless tomato seedlings and the early, middle and late stages of colonization and cultivation. Management work to fundamentally improve the overall quality of tomato soilless cultivation in glass greenhouses, to ensure maximum tomato planting yield, and to further promote the application and development of tomato soilless cultivation techniques in glass greenhouses. Soilless cultivation technology is one of the basic points of agricultural development in the future, especially the glass greenhouse soilless cultivation tomatoes imported from the Netherlands in recent years all adopt the integrated technology of substrate cultivation and water and fertilizer.